Episode 150. Rachel Cosgrove, on Women and Fitness

Show Notes

Rachel Cosgrove is owner of Results Fitness located in Southern California, which recently completed its 19th year in business. Rachel was the 2012 IDEA Personal Trainer of the Year. She’s speaks internationally at fitness conferences, is a columnist for Women’s Health Magazine, Huffington Post and Nike, and author of “The Female Body Breakthrough”  and “Drop Two Sizes”.

Results Fitness continues to expand, recently adding an educational center near their gym.


Observations on fitness today

  • Rachel’s vision was walking into a gym and seeing women in the weight room instead of the treadmills or aerobics classes.
  • Changes in the industry for the better: women not afraid to lift weights. A common fear was getting big and bulky.
  • Changes to the fitness industry Rachel would like to see but hasn’t yet: trainers seen as professionals.
  • The change Rachel would like to see for [fitness] consumers: access to better information. There’s no lack of information, but it’s overwhelming and confusing.
  • The challenge used to be learning, but has now become unlearning.
“Information is not knowledge.”Albert Einstein


Women and self-image

  • Eating disorders and fitness competition seem to attract one another.
  • Fitness can become part of a search for self-fulfillment.
  • Plastic surgery is another manifestation of the pursuit of a physical appearance ideal.
  • Social media puts unhealthy pressures on girls growing up today.
  • The US Women’s Soccer team’s World Cup victory illustrates that women can be strong and independent.
  • Scott turns down potential clients who come with unrealistic physique goals that are unachievable and not in the person’s best interest.


Women in fitness

  • Women fitness experts seem to be held to a higher personal fitness standard than the men, many of whom are out of shape themselves. There’s a double standard.
  • Results Fitness has more female coaches than male, and they all have different body types and are at different stages in their own fitness journeys. But they are in great shape and can each teach their clients something.
  • Appearances don’t always tell the whole story. There may have been a past health issue that has influenced a physique.
  • Compare, contrast and compete are Scott’s three “C”s of body image problems.
  • Rachel is often the only female speaker at conferences she attends. She encourages more women to apply to speak at conferences.


A Positive Space

  • Nutrition apps. Workout apps. How many apps do people have to have to function?
  • People bounce from nutritional freestyling—eating whatever they want whenever they want—to counting calories, macros, etc.
  • Improve, one habit at a time. Maybe just start small, drink more water, and see how that feels.
  • Workouts can be a form of self-connection. The gym can be a place where you lose yourself and find yourself.
  • The Results Fitness environment is positive, supportive and drama-free. No judgements. Where are you now? Where do you want to go? No negative discussions.
  • Rachel, [Alwyn], and the coaches set the standard and the example.


Transformation experiences

  • Some Results Fitness members have been there for 19 years since they opened their doors.
  • Rachel, on interviewing a new client who has a particular physique goal: If you looked like that, how would you feel? Ask the “why” to get to the deeper, real “why”. It’s more about being comfortable with yourself as a person, instead of looking a certain way.
    Sometimes the client doesn’t know the “why” at the moment.
  • The client’s journey can sometimes be different than originally expected.
  • One Results Fitness client—a 64-year-old woman—went from being someone with bilateral knee replacements, working out because her doctor ordered, to winning a world powerlifting championship.
  • You can’t give up on yourself. Look for things you can do instead of focusing on what you can’t.

>Follow Coach Rachel Cosgrove<

Instagram  |  Facebook  |  Twitter
Rachel’s Website  |  Results Fitness Website


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Episode 149. Talkin’ Shop with Supertrainer Lee Boyce

Show Notes

Lee Boyce is a Toronto-based strength coach and internationally-published fitness writer, and speaker. He’s also a part-time college professor in Fitness and Health Promotion. Lee’s regularly featured in many of the largest platforms as a Fitness Expert, and speaks around North America at professional development conferences, helping trainers become more effective at their craft.

Lee has been featured or contributed in well-known media: Wall Street Journal, Esquire, Men’s Fitness, Men’s Health, Muscle & Fitness, Men’s Journal, Oxygen, Shape, Huffington Post, Arnold Schwarzenegger media, and ABC News Radio.


The expert personal trainer and social media

  • There’s a lot of copycat training expertise in the market.
  • How many trainers are dependent on social media and numbers of followers? The footprint you leave on the industry has to come from someplace else.
  • There is a place and need for the social media “fits-po” type trainer. They’re just not on par with experts who try to make clients, and other trainers, better.
  • If you’re going to be someone who wants to be viewed as an expert in the health industry, a trainer should try to physically evidence like they’re walking the talk.
  • The role of a good coach is to put [themselves] out of business.
  • When Lee speaks at conferences, his goal is to deliver information people can use, rather than furthering an agenda.
  • Lee and Scott agree that experience is the greatest teacher.


  • In April 2017, Lee suffered a bilateral patellar tendon rupture during a basketball game. Contributing to it were new shoes, concrete floor, had not played in a while, and was insufficiently warmed up.
  • The injury taught him lessons on how to approach training and other things, and forced him to find different substitutes for movements he did before.
  • Mobility, calisthenics and bodyweight training are important. We get into a run of performing the big, strength movements, working in the sagittal plane and overload.
  • Need to address connective tissue and mobility, and other forms of resistance.
  • Limitations since then: longer warm-up, sets with the bar only. Can still run, jump, sprint, and squat over 300 lbs.

Matching the client and training program

  • Look at chronological (biological) age, and training age. Lee would address a first timer to the gym who’s 43 lifting weights differently than a first timer who’s 18 lifting weights.
  • There may be accrued injuries, weaknesses or imbalances in the older trainee.
  • Someone working a desk job for 22 years will likely have immobility and maybe lacking coordination and other basic skills.
  • Some trainers put all clients through the same program, regardless of the trainee’s goal.

What does the number of chin-ups have to do with achieving a physique goal?

  • Are high-impact, ballistic training styles contributing to many sports injuries we see today?
  • Longer sports seasons are abbreviating careers.
  • There’s something to be said for lay-offs and time away from the gym.

“It’s great to have a 600-lb deadlift but what’s your shelf life going to be…?”  Coach Lee Boyce


Becoming a great trainer

  • People who have disposable income are a “blue ocean” for trainers. Blue oceans are markets where the competition is limited.
  • Lee used his writing as a way to differentiate himself from other trainers.
  • Personal training fees should be set just like any other profession, like dentists or lawyers, whose fees are all within a finite range.
  • Most trainers don’t put in the energy and effort to make themselves stand out as true experts. Fewer people are willing to put their heads down, be a learner, and do what it takes.
  • Tips for becoming a great trainer:
    • Don’t skip steps.
    • Work with as many clients and demographics as possible.
    • Continue learning. Read the experts, like Dan John, Mark Rippetoe, JC Santana, Vern Gambetta, and others.
    • Stick with what you know.

>Follow Coach Lee Boyce<

Website  |  Instagram  |  Facebook  |  Twitter


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Episode 148. The Steroid Years

Show Notes

Scott shares the inside scoop on his own history with steroids, what really goes on behind the scenes with those drugs in the bodybuilding world, and why he left that world.

His recent retrospective posted on his Facebook sites chronicles his journey from completely natural to what he terms “hard core” steroid use.


A brief history

  • In 1986, the steroid scene was far different than it is today. The doses then were much smaller. Scott shares some examples.
  • In 1987 when Scott won the Great Lakes championship, steroids were more out in the open. People became interested in how the drugs actually worked.
  • Scott educated himself on the drugs, and outside sources came to recognize him as an expert on the subject.
  • Steroids have anabolic and androgenic properties. Some have more anabolic effect, while others produce more androgenic effects.
  • By 1988, he was visibly thicker.
  • His “hard core” years began in the 90s. At his last photo shoot [as a bodybuilder], he was extremely lean and vascular, but thick at 260 lbs.

Signs and side effects

  • There are visible, tell-tale physical signs of steroid use.
  • The body holds onto fluids, so the face gets puffy. There is tremendous lean weight gain.
  • [Cystic] acne, hair loss and gynecomastia are just three of the side effects.
  • Some bodies respond more favorably to steroids, results as well as side effects.

The ugly side

  • Another reason Scott exited the business was that the drugs surpassed training as the way to excel.
  • Steroids are taken by men and women. Scott thinks women take more today than he did back in “the day”.
  • Counterfeit and adulterated drugs have been used without the users’ knowledge. The real drug was replaced or cut with other substances like WD40.
  • Supra-physiological dosages require other drugs be taken to compensate for the side effects.
  • The cottage steroid industry is almost like multi-level marketing, where a steroid-taking competitor resells steroids to their own clients.
  • The abuse of steroids—as well as other drugs—in the bodybuilding world was what drove Scott out of the sport.
  • Health scares Scott’s witnessed from steroid use: death, heart attack, cancer, sepsis, abscesses, near-amputations, and others.
  • Scott doesn’t like to call bodybuilding a sport anymore. He viewed bodybuilding as movable sculpture and got out of it when it ceased to be that to him.
A Note about TRT
  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) and steroid use are completely different. TRT doses are much smaller, intended to make up the difference between what the body under-produces and a healthy level.


Training Resources

The Hardgainer Solution Course

The Abel Approach, Second Edition


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Episode 147. A Conversation with the Happy Healthy Vegan

Show Notes

Ryan Lum, the Happy Healthy Vegan, joins Scott for a friendly chat about fitness, diet, and the challenges of honest debate in today’s online world.


“Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience.” – Mark Twain

  • Scott originally came across the Happy Healthy Vegan—when Ryan was featured on the TV show The Doctors.
  • Ryan loves fitness, and recently achieved his long-time goal of dunking a basketball.
  • He had been a runner, and learned how to structure his training to achieve a goal.
  • He applied what he learned toward his new goal of dunking. He’d played basketball when he was younger. He quit during his forties and picked basketball up again as he entered his fifties. Ryan was never a gifted leaper but can now dunk.

Seeking the truth, or defending a bias?

  • Ryan says that people are more open-minded about a vegan diet now. Less so online. He rarely has haters approach him in person.
  • Trying to convince someone of an idea in the era of social media is a losing proposition.
  • Selling supplements is an indicator that a diet creator has an agenda.
  • When someone is under the power of a belief, they [can] become closed minded.
  • “Recent former vegans” often abandoned the diet because they went to extremes not central to the diet. Ryan’s never seen anyone quit veganism who approached it sensibly.
  • Veganism attracts people who seek restrictive diets. This is sometimes seen in people with body dysmorphia.
  • Diet mentality should be inclusive, not exclusive. We are hard-wired to seek food, not avoid food.

Being vegan is easier than ever

  • Ryan’s primary goal for the Happy Healthy Vegan is to show how easy, fun and normal being vegan is.
  • Being vegan these days doesn’t mean you have to give up much.
  • There are vegan options for indulgence food, like ice cream and burgers, that taste great.


More about Ryan, the Happy Healthy Vegan

Website  |  YouTube  |  Instagram  |  Products, Books and Tees


Diet Resources by Scott

Lean Without Trying: The Six-Day Vegan Diet  |  Physique After 50

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Episode 146. Three Simple Ways to Optimize Metabolism

Show Notes

Scott presents the latest clinical research into the body’s internal clock and makes practical suggestions on how to apply it for optimized metabolism and better physique.


Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a poor man.

  • The latest nutrition research has centered around chronobiology, the branch of science focused on natural physiological rhythms which has a bearing on weight control.
  • Diet trends focus on the short-term phase. Energy balance (energy in – energy out) results from long-term homeostasis.
  • Scott provides an overview of three general, practical ways to take advantage of chronobiology and work with our own internal rhythms:

1. Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a poor man.

  • Front-loading energy intake earlier in the day makes sense in light of this research.
  • The research shows that a mis-timed feeding can have negative effects on metabolism.
  • Don’t skip breakfast.

2. Eat whole foods, mostly from plants, to foster a healthy gut microbiome.

  • Healthy whole foods—especially those from plants—support healthy gut microbiome.
  • Gut microbiota modulate internal clocks, which has a direct effect on fat storage.

3. Observe a consistent schedule: meal, sleep, wake, and even work-out timing.

  • Regimentation is important for optimized metabolism and therefore, physique.
  • How and when we eat seems to be as relevant as what we eat (assuming what we eat isn’t processed junk food).
  • Regular sleep and wake times helps optimize metabolism. Good sleep hygiene helps maintain a rhythm.
  • Scheduling should also extend to regular workout times if possible.



Challet, Etienne. “The Circadian Regulation of Food Intake.” Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31073218

McHill, Andrew W, et al. “Later Circadian Timing of Food Intake Is Associated with Increased Body Fat.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, American Society for Nutrition, Nov. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5657289/

Bray, M S, et al. “Quantitative Analysis of Light-Phase Restricted Feeding Reveals Metabolic Dyssynchrony in Mice.” International Journal of Obesity (2005), U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22907695

Koike, Nobuya, et al. “Transcriptional Architecture and Chromatin Landscape of the Core Circadian Clock in Mammals.” Science (New York, N.Y.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, 19 Oct. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566

Min, Chanyang, et al. “Skipping Breakfast Is Associated with Diet Quality and Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors of Adults.” Nutrition Research and Practice, The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition, Oct. 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221832/


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Episode 145. Some Basic Guidance on Healthy Nutrition, with Dr. Michael Greger


Show Notes

Physician and nutrition expert Dr. Michael Greger talks with Scott about his research and offers some basic truths about diet and nutrition.


“Here’s the science. Do whatever you want!”

  • Dr. Greger noticed a big gap between what the science said and the diets people often follow.
  • The fitness industry fixates on the vogue diet of the day.
  • Keto is really just repackaged Adkins, but worse because people continue to eat that way long-term.
  • Low carb diets can be traced back to the 1850s, and keeps coming back.
  • What happens inside the body is what’s important.
  • Dieters can’t tell what’s actually going on inside by looking at the scale.
  • Ignore the scale. The scale shows weight loss but it’s water weight that’s lost first. The body then starts burning muscle for energy. Body fat loss actually goes down.
  • Vermont Inmate Study on experimental obesity wanted increase body weight by 25%. To get the same weight gain with a mixed diet, it took 140,000 calories. Researchers got the same effect by increasing fat intake by 40,000, showing the potency of fat for weight gain.
  • Whole foods that grow out of the ground make the best dietary choices.

“The more we can weigh our calories toward the morning the better.”

  • Greger’s new book discusses chronobiology, how exactly the same foods can be more fattening depending on the time of day they’re consumed.
  • There’s something to the old adage, “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper.”  The more calories are ingested earlier in the day, the better.
  • Cutting animal protein can raise cortisol levels. Increased cortisol has been associated with body fat gain.
  • Branch Chain Amino Acids increase insulin resistance. Whey protein is high in BCAAs.
  • The body makes all the carnitine it needs, other than in a very rare birth defect where the body doesn’t manufacture it.
  • Naysayers of plant protein say that it’s unavailable to the body due to cellulose. Chewing and the microbiome in the colon help by breaking it down.
  • Look at the evidence. Greger presents the scientific data to his followers and patients. They can do with it whatever they like. They can also choose to smoke cigarettes or bungee jump if they like.
  • Greger says he’s not interested in debating with ideologues to whom science doesn’t matter.


About Dr. Michael Greger

Dr. Greger is a founding member and Fellow of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine. He’s a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized speaker on nutrition, food safety, and public health issues. He has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, testified before Congress, and was invited as an expert witness in the defense of Oprah Winfrey in the infamous “meat defamation” trial.

In 2017, Dr. Greger was honored with the ACLM Lifestyle Medicine Trailblazer Award. He is a graduate of Cornell University School of Agriculture and Tufts University School of Medicine. His book “How Not to Die” became an instant New York Times Best Seller. His more than 2,000 health topics are freely available at NutritionFacts.org, with new content uploaded routinely.


Order Dr. Greger’s books

How Not to Die

How Not to Diet

Website | Facebook | Twitter | Podcast


All proceeds he receives from his books, DVDs, and speaking engagements are donated to charity.


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